When a target is created, you have the ability to choose the type of data you wish to collect. Each target type changes the data collection screen on the mobile device so data can be collected in a variety of ways.
A discrete trial target (DTT) uses prompt codes to measure a student’s response to a specific SD (instruction). These trials are performed in a DTT “session”, a correct response will allow the user to move to the next target, and an incorrect response will issue a correction trial by default. (You can customize your correction trials and other DTT settings on your Setup tab under Student Settings).
A jump-to item is a target type that is unique to Catalyst’s collection system. This categorization is used for incidental targets that you would not want to display in a DTT session automatically (e.g., standing in line before recess, initiating peer conversation, and requesting to swing when on the playground).
Momentary Time Sampling
Momentary Time Sampling allows the user to track and record if a behavior is occurring or not occurring at the end of a user-specified interval. A pop-up window will appear after the specified duration and will contain a list of the target behaviors, each with a (+) and (-) beside each. As the popup window appears, the user is prompted to observe whether the listed target behaviors are occurring at that moment and record them accordingly
Partial Interval allows the user to define an “observe” and “record' interval for a chosen skill. A partial interval target measures whether a target occurred at any point within a specified time interval. To utilize Whole or Partial Interval recording for target behaviors, the user will need to create an interval schedule and place the desired targets within the interval schedule. Interval schedules can be customized in the student web portal within the Interval Schedule section of the Setup tab.
To record Partial Interval on the Device, the user will begin a new lesson by selecting the ‘Discrete Trials button. The Interval Schedule containing selected targets can then be located on the left side of the notebook spiral once a session has started.
Whole Interval allows the user to record target behaviors occurring throughout the duration of a user-specified interval. (i.e., whether the child is exhibiting the behavior for the entire interval).
A task analysis (TA) target is a single target comprised of several ordered behaviors or steps. Data can be collected on each individual step and is graphed as a percentage of total steps for the specific trial. You can customize your TA setting so that each step is either a pass/fail item, or you can record the prompt level needed to elicit the correct response for each step.
Save TA Steps
You can begin to score steps within a TA, navigate away from the target, and then return to the TA to see the steps that have been initially scored. Once all applicable TA steps are complete, a user can press ‘save’ to sync the completed TA to the portal.
Creating Task Analyses in the Portal
When creating a Task Analysis target in the portal, steps should be entered in to the TA Steps box and separate by commas.
Editing Task Analysis Steps
After the steps have been created, they can be edited by clicking the Edit Steps under the Actions menu.
The Manage Steps box will then appear in which steps can be added or reordered (by dropping and dragging). By default, all steps are enabled and used for mastery. Enabled steps will appear on the device and be available for scoring. Disabled steps will appear on the device but will NOT be able to be scored. Steps that are selected as Used for Mastery will be calculated in the mastery criteria. Those steps not selected as Use for Mastery will be graphed but will not be calculated into the mastery criteria.
A frequency target is used to record the frequency or number of times a specific target occurs. These targets are visible on the bottom of your device during all data collection sessions and will tally each response throughout the day until midnight when the data collection interval will be reset.
Group frequencies allow the user to compile a percentage for frequency targets (e.g., % prompted vs. % unprompted mands). Group Frequencies is graphed as the percentage of opportunities. For example, if you were working with a student calculating the following prompts: Request a Snack, Request a Hug, Request Playtime and Request Water then you would get a percentage of those requests.
Duration targets are used to record a time interval for a specific action. When creating a duration target, users can specify a target time period. Once the duration timer on the device reaches that goal, the timer begins to count upward and a notification will be displayed. The device displays not only the data for the current observation but also the previous trial's duration as well as the total daily duration. Data are collected on the entire duration recorded, and are graphed showing the average duration for the day, as well as the total duration.
Toileting targets are used when implementing a toilet-training program. Use this target to capture sit duration, type of void, accidents and initiations in one place.
You can even view data from past toileting trips scored on the same device, by selecting View All Past Trips.
Echoic targets are for recording data on measurements of prosody. Users can rate characteristics of speech targets, including: Articulation, Volume, Speed, Tone, and Rhythm, for any specific echoic sound, word, or phrase. You can rate student responses as a 0, .5, 1, or N/A across each of these dimensions. You can also collect and store audio recordings of students’ echoic responses. Sounds can be recorded on the device and synced to the portal.
Stored sounds can be accessed in the Raw Data section for Echoic Targets, by clicking “listen.”
By default, when viewing the graphs for echoic targets, the data paths for each scoring dimension will be displayed on the same graph.
You can separate the data, and view the dimensions on different graphs by clicking the drop-down menu beside Graph Type, and choosing your desired measurement.
Rate (or Fluency) targets allow users the ability to gather data that can be graphed as a rate. From the portal, you can set the amount of time for which you’d like to take data on the item, and other parameters.
From the app, you can start the timer by touching the green Start button. A counter will appear, which allows you to tally behaviors during the interval. Press the green “+” to increase your total, and the red “–“ to decrease your total.
You may stop the timer at any point by choosing Stop. Press Save to send your data to the server, and Cancel to discard the data.
For targets denoted as Anecdotal, instructors can enter free-form textual responses for an individual item, instead of checking boxes. When you view the target from the app, tap inside the bottom yellow sticky note. The keyboard will appear, and you can enter free text. If you navigate away from the target, the text will remain and you can return at any point during the day to add addition information. Press Save to save the note to the portal. To view the anecdotal data log from the Student Portal, select the item’s Actions menu, then Raw Data.
Users can score numerical amounts for a target, when the target is specified as a Quantity type. By tapping the quantity counter from the app, you can select a numerical value to assign to an item. This can be used to denote measures such as distance, amount, or even quiz/test scores.
Errorless Teaching (Automatic Prompting Hierarchy)
Errorless teaching allows users to create prompting hierarchies which a target will progress through based on set promotion and demotion criteria. For example, if teaching a motor imitation target, you can create a prompting hierarchy that progresses along the following hierarchy: physical, touch, demonstration, and independent. You are able to set a promotion criteria (e.g., 20 trials out of 25 trials) and Catalyst will automatically move the target to the next, least intrusive prompt, when that criteria is met. The device displays the current prompt level in yellow, the future prompt levels in red, and previously mastered prompt levels in grey.
Key to Prompt Levels on the Device
Yellow indicates the current prompt level in the schedule. Any trials scored with this level will be graphed as independent on the following Errorless Teaching graphs; % Correct Responding, Daily Prompt Percentage, and Transitions graph
Grey indicates a previously mastered prompt level. You can still score these prompts but the trial will be graphed as incorrect on the Errorless Teaching graphs.
Green indicates a prompt level that is less intrusive than the current level. These prompt levels will be scored as independent on the following Errorless Teaching graphs; % Correct Responding, Daily Prompt Percentage, and Transitions graph
Once you create a Prompt Schedule and assign targets to the schedule, and open the target, you are ready to collect data on a device. The current prompt will be displayed in yellow. When you reach the promotion criteria, Catalyst will automatically move to the next least intrusive prompt. Below is an example of how this would look on a device.
The device would initially display this screen given the above schedule. The first prompt (most intrusive prompt), physical would be highlighted yellow until the promotion criteria is met.
Once the criteria is met, the next prompt level (touch) would be highlighted yellow and the previously mastered prompt (physical) would be colored grey.
After the promotion criteria for the Touch prompt is met, Demonstration is highlighted yellow, indicating it is the current prompt level. Touch prompt would then be shaded grey, indicating it has already been mastered.
Once the Demonstration prompt level has met the promotion criteria, the last prompt level, Independent, will be highlighted yellow and all previously mastered prompt levels will be shaded grey.
Scoring Prompt Levels
You can score prompt levels even if they are shaded grey. The grey only indicates it is a previously mastered prompt level.
In order to learn more about setting up a Prompt Schedule, please visit Prompt Schedules
In order to learn about graphing of Errorless Teaching targets, please visit Graphing Features.
A conditional discrimination target allows you to target various conditional discriminations using a probe and teach method and counterbalancing of target order and stimulus placement. The probe allows you to conduct a least to most prompt sequence to determine the “controlling” prompt for each target. The teaching trials prompt you 1) to conduct targets in a specific order, 2) to use the controlling prompt in a most to least sequence with prompt fading, and 3) to place the stimulus array in a specific counterbalanced order. An incorrect response will result in the program prompting the implementer to increase the prompt level. The scoring will allow you to evaluate whether there is a stimulus or positional bias.
We encourage you to view the following videos to get the best understanding of the Conditional Discrimination feature.
Video 1: Enter Your Prompt Schedule
Video 2: Create Your Target Set
Video 3: Taking Data and Counterbalancing
Video 4A: Probes
Video 4B: Probes
Video 5: Graphing
Video 6: Overview
For more information on Conditional Discrimination graphs, please refer to this tip sheet.
Even more information is available on Conditional Discrimination on our Virtual Academy website in the form of a two-part webinar series by Dr. Linda LeBlanc. Click to watch "Part 1: Conditional Discrimination Concepts and Best Practices" and/or "Part 2: Using Conditional Discrimination in Catalyst".